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BGA Soldering & Repairing | Ball Grid Array Soldering

BGA soldering and desoldering differs and is more challenging than SMD soldering and desoldering.

Electronic devices and gadgets are becoming increasingly smaller and sleeker. All of this is made possible because of advancements in electrical technology. The world's top electronic companies are competing to create the smallest and slimmest gadgets.

Surface Mount Devices (SMD) and Ball Grid Array (BGA) are two electrical components that enable electronic devices, gadgets, and mobile phones to be smaller and slimmer.


What is BGA (Ball Grid Array) and Why is BGA Necessary?

Surface Mount Technology (where SMD electronic components are actually placed or fastened on the surface of the SMT printed circuit board) uses BGA or Ball Grid Array packaging. There are no leads or pins on a BGA package. The Ball Grid Array gets its name from the fact that it is essentially a grid of metal alloy balls. Tin/Lead (Sn/Pb 63/37) or Tin/Silver/Copper BGA Balls are commonly used (Lead-Free).

Benefits of BGA VS SMD

Electronic components are densely populated on the PCB, or Printed Circuit Board, in today's electronic products and gadgets. With a growth in the number of electronic components, the size of the Circuit Board will grow. SMDs and BGA Packages are utilized to reduce the size of the PCB because they are both smaller and slimmer in size and take up very little space on the board.
BGA components are a better choice for a variety of PCB types, but they must be soldered with caution to ensure that the BGA solder process is correct and dependable.

In comparison to SMD components, BGA has the following advantages:

 • As a result of the lower track density, the PCB design has improved.The BGA package is quite reliable.
 • Thermal resistance is reduced.
 • High-speed performance and communication have been improved.

Process of Soldering BGA

BGA technology was a source of concern throughout the early stages. BGA components' solderability and reliability were questioned. Because the pads on a BGA are hidden beneath the device and cannot be seen, proper soldering and inspection procedures are required.
BGA soldering procedures have been shown and trusted to be quite dependable in recent years. It has also been discovered that, once the process is properly set up, BGA solder dependability is far superior to that of quad flat packs (QFP) or any other SMD package.

BGA reflow soldering

The reflow soldering process is commonly used to solder BGA components because it allows the entire PCB assembly to be heated up to a predetermined temperature, allowing the solder or solder balls underneath the BGA components to melt.

The solder balls on the packaging have a predetermined amount of solder for any BGA soldering. There are solder balls in various diameters such as 18 mil, 24 mil, 30 mil, and so on. The solder melts when the board with the solder balls and BGA package is heated in the reflow oven. The molten solder uses surface tension to keep the package in the correct alignment with the circuit board. It is critical to pay attention to the solder alloy composition and soldering temperature so that the solder does not entirely melt but remains semi-solid, allowing the solder balls to remain separate from one another and preventing bridging.


BGA solder junction inspection

One of the most difficult duties is BGA and SMT inspection. Because the solder is hidden beneath the BGA Package and cannot be seen, inspecting the BGA joints becomes extremely difficult. X-rays are the only reliable way to test BGA solder joints. The use of an X-ray allows you to see the joints underneath the packaging, which aids in examination.

Hand Soldering and Desoldering of BGAs - BGA Rework / Repair

The most difficult aspect is rework and manual soldering of BGA Packages. To complete the job, you'll need a lot of practice. Let's look at how to desolder and solder BGA packages by hand.

Desoldering BGA by Hand

Hot air is the most popular method for desoldering BGA. The following are the steps for desoldering a BGA package using hot air:
1. Apply liquid flux to the package's sides.
2. Preheat the package from the top as well as the bottom. A preheater can provide heat from the bottom, while a Hot Air Rework System can provide heat from the top. This is when the Goot Hot Air SMD / BGA Rework System comes in handy.
3. Now, using the appropriate BGA Nozzle, apply heat to the BGA Package.
4. The solder balls beneath the BGA package will begin to melt. Using tweezers or a vacuum pick-up tool, pick up the package.

Soldering BGA by Hand

Hot air is once again the most prevalent method for soldering BGA. The steps for soldering a BGA Package with Hot Air are as follows:
Clean the pad and remove any excess solder from the board once the BGA Package has been removed.
1. On the pad, apply Flux Paste (not Liquid Flux). Solder balls will cling to the paste flux and will not fall or shift position.
2. Carefully place solder balls on the pad.
3. Apply paste flux to the BGA package's bottom (soldering side).
4. Place the BGA Package on the solder balls with care.
5. Preheat the oven and then blow hot air from both the top and bottom with a hot air blower.
6. The solder balls will melt and solder together.

If done correctly, BGA technology and BGA soldering are extremely reliable. A BGA has a lower heat resistance and hence suffers less or no damage from overheating.